- Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS)—also called recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU)
- Viral infections, particularly herpes simplex and herpes zoster
- Other infectious agents (Candida albicans and bacteria)
- Chemotherapy and radiation therapy
- Some causes usually also have extraoral, cutaneous findings
- .Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on appearance and on exclusion, because there are no definitive histologic features or laboratory tests.
- Primary oral herpes simplex may mimic RAS but usually occurs in younger children, always involves the gingiva and may affect any keratinized mucosa (hard palate, attached gingiva, dorsum of tongue), and is associated with systemic symptoms. Viral culture can be done to identify herpes simplex. Recurrent herpetic lesions are usually unilateral.
Similar recurrent episodes can occur with Behçet's syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, sprue, HIV infection, and nutritional deficiencies; these conditions generally have systemic symptoms and signs. Isolated recurrent oral ulcers can occur with herpes infection, HIV, and, rarely, nutritional deficiency. Viral testing and serum hematologic tests can identify these conditions.
Drug reactions may mimic RAS but are usually temporally related to ingestion. However, reactions to foods or dental products may be difficult to identify; sequential elimination may be necessary.
- Kath safaid, Dana eelaichi khurd, Kishneez khusk, Shab Yamani grind all in same quantity and sprinkle thispowder at ulcers.
- Tabasheer, Gulnar, Kath safaid, Sandal safaid, Sandal surkh, Gul surkh, Gul sayoti, Posth Haleela zard, Asl alsoos muqassar, Dana eelaichi khurd each same in quantity and make powder, use this powder 6 gm twice a day along with Arq Zeera 50 ml.
- Sharbat Neelofar 20 ml twice a day.
- Qurs Tabasheer thrice a day.
- Gulkhand 10 gm at bed time.
- Safoof Kishnizi 5 gm twice a day and Qurs kustha Gauthandi 2 tab twice a day